Statistical estimates of vote counting fraud in Russian federal elections
Sergey Shpilkin, independent researcher
At least four times in the modern history of Russian elections, vote counting fraud, as estimated statistically, had significant consequences for the political development. According to the statistical estimates of the Russian election expert Sergey Shpilkin, the amount of fradulent votes in favour of the "United Russia" during the State Duma elections in September 2016 was 12,6 million, what allowed "United Russia" to regain the constitutional majority in Duma.
Please find the whole study done by Sergey Shpilkin as PDF here.