In Anton Shekhovtsov’s newest study he identifies different factors that influence the occurrence of Russian interference in international elections. Each case of Russian interference is special and quite the opposite of routinised practice, as suggested by the mainstream media. When assessing Russian meddling, Shekhovtsov argues that we need to consider the following five factors:
- Putin’s regime is not satisfied with the prevailing political attitudes towards Russia in Western Country X.
- There are political forces in Country X that are significant enough and are ready to cooperate with Russian pro-Kremlin actors.
- Meddling in the elections in favour of particular political forces does not clash with other, non-political interests of Putin’s regime in Country X.
- Russia has relevant human and structural resources to interfere in the electoral process in Country X.
- Political culture in Country X is conducive to Russian influence.
This article discusses elections in France, Norway, Germany, Austria, Italy, Hungary, and Sweden that took place in 2017-2018, and shows how different combinations of the above-mentioned factors produced different outcomes in terms of Russian meddling.
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